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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL HYPOTHESIS
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 50-52

Local use of iontophoresis with traditional Chinese herbal medicine, e.g., Gu-Sui-Bu (Rhizoma Drynariae) may accelerate orthodontic tooth movement


Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, China

Date of Web Publication5-Jun-2013

Correspondence Address:
Yongming Li
Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, 145 West Changle Road, 710032, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province
China
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2155-8213.113008

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  Abstract 

Introduction: Mechanical force is not the only means to cause tooth movement, but just one kind of stimuli for it. Biological stimuli, with potential of accelerating alveolar bone remodeling, other than mechanical force, have been attracted by orthodontists who are combating prolonged treatment duration. It has been approved that some traditional Chinese medicines, such as Gu-Sui-Bu (Rhizoma Drynaria), affect the process of bone remodeling. The Hypothesis: We make the hypothesis that local use of iontophoresis with Gu-Sui-Bu (Rhizoma Drynaria) as a non-invasive and safe drug delivery system with no trauma, risk of infection or damage to patients is a new potential approach for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement, and shorten the orthodontic treatment time. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Gu-Sui-Bu is effective at inducing bone remodeling, and iontophoresis as a non-invasive technique for drug delivery, is suitable for the transmission of some traditional Chinese herbal medicines into periodontal tissues.

Keywords: Chinese herbal medicine, Gu-Sui-Bu (Rhizoma Drynariae), iontophoresis, orthodontic tooth movement


How to cite this article:
Li Y. Local use of iontophoresis with traditional Chinese herbal medicine, e.g., Gu-Sui-Bu (Rhizoma Drynariae) may accelerate orthodontic tooth movement. Dent Hypotheses 2013;4:50-2

How to cite this URL:
Li Y. Local use of iontophoresis with traditional Chinese herbal medicine, e.g., Gu-Sui-Bu (Rhizoma Drynariae) may accelerate orthodontic tooth movement. Dent Hypotheses [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Aug 23];4:50-2. Available from: http://www.dentalhypotheses.com/text.asp?2013/4/2/50/113008


  Introduction Top


Orthodontic tooth movement resulted from the effects of mechanical force on the tooth, which was characterized by the remodeling of the alveolar bone and soft-tissues surrounding the tooth. Most orthodontic devices presently in use apply mechanical force to the tooth or alveolar bone and are thus expected to control tooth movement. However, contemporary researches suggest that mechanical force is not the only means to cause tooth movement, but just one kind of stimuli for it. Biological stimuli, with potential of accelerating alveolar bone remodeling, other than mechanical force, have been attracted by orthodontists who are combating prolonged treatment duration. Various attempts, including pharmaceutical trial and physical stimulation, have been made to shorten the time necessary for orthodontic tooth movement. However, no matter local injection or systemic administration of medicines such as vitamin D, [1] prostaglandins [2] and epidermal growth factor, [3] these pharmaceutical strategies have such drawbacks as non-specific, undesirable effects, invasive, and increased risk of side-effects on other systems of the human body, which limit their clinical applications. Traditional Chinese medicine is a treasure house, which has been extensively used, apparently safely and effectively, to treat various bone diseases for more than a millennium in Asian countries, especially in China. [4] In the Western countries, medicinal herbs are becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. It has been shown that some traditional Chinese medicines, such as Gu-Sui-Bu (Rhizoma Drynariae), affect the process of bone remodeling, [5] and iontophoresis as a non-invasive technique for drug delivery may be suitable for the transmission of some traditional Chinese herbal medicines into periodontal tissues. [6]


  The Hypothesis Top


Since, some traditional Chinese medicines, such as Gu-Sui-Bu (Rhizoma Drynariae), affect the process of bone remodeling, [5] and orthodontic tooth movement is related to the response to applied mechanical forces that cause remodeling of periodontal tissues, especially alveolar bone, then we can make the hypothesis that local use iontophoresis with traditional Chinese herbal medicine as a non-invasive and safe drug delivery system with no trauma, risk of infection or damage to patients is therefore a new potential approach for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement, and shorten the orthodontic treatment time, but further studies will be needed to explore the precise dosage, duration and frequency of Gu-Sui-Bu in orthodontic treatment fields.


  Evaluation of the Hypothesis Top


Effect of traditional Chinese medicines on bone remodeling

Traditional Chinese medicines have been used in the Chinese population for the treatment of bone diseases and to promote bone healing for thousands of years. Some traditional Chinese medicines have shown therapeutic effects on fracture healing in clinical and animal studies [6],[7],[8],[9] J.Smith, was commonly used to manage disorders of orthopedics and had been claimed to have therapeutic effects on bone healing. [5] Ma et al, [10] found that Gu-Sui-Bu injection significantly promoted calcification of the cultivated chick embryo bone primordium, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the cultivated tissue, and accelerated synthesis of proteoglycan. Liu et al, [11] has shown that

Gu-Sui-Bu has an antioxidant effect on rat osteoblasts from hydrogen peroxide-induced death and may promote bone recovery under similar pathologic conditions. Sun et al, [5] investigated the biochemical effects of Gu-Sui-Bu on the bone cells culture. The results demonstrated that this traditional Chinese medicine has potential effects on the bone cells culture. One of the major effects of Gu-Sui-Bu on the bone cells is probably mediated by its effect on the osteclasts activities. Chen et al, [12] reported that Gu-Sui-Bu could reinforce osteoblastic function and activity, contributing to new bone formation. These findings support the idea that Gu-Sui-Bu is effective at inducing bone remodeling.

Iontophoretic drug delivery

Iontophoresis is a method that uses an electrical current to increase the penetration of drugs into the body for therapeutic purposes. As a non-invasive technique for drug delivery, iontophoresis has been long used to deliver various chemicals and drugs into human tissues. Local use of iontophoresis indicated multiple applications in dentistry, dermatology, ophthalmology, and physical medicine. [6],[13],[14] It may also be suitable for the transmission of some traditional Chinese herbal medicines into periodontal tissues, including alveolar bone.


  Conclusion Top


In addition to other hypotheses regarding acceleration of orthodontic tooth movement, [15],[16],[17],[18] we hypothesize that local use iontophoresis with some traditional Chinese herbal medicine, e.g., Gu-Sui-Bu (Rhizoma Drynariae) in proper dosage, duration and frequency as a non-invasive and safe drug delivery system with no trauma, risk of infection or damage to the patients will be a new potential approach which may accelerate orthodontic tooth movement, and shorten the orthodontic treatment time.

 
  References Top

1.Kawakami M, Takano-Yamamoto T. Local injection of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhanced bone formation for tooth stabilization after experimental tooth movement in rats. J Bone Miner Metab 2004;22:541-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Lee WC. Experimental study of the effect of prostaglandin administration on tooth movement - With particular emphasis on the relationship to the method of PGE1 administration. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1990;98:231-41.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Alves JB, Ferreira CL, Martins AF, Silva GA, Alves GD, Paulino TP, et al. Local delivery of EGF-liposome mediated bone modeling in orthodontic tooth movement by increasing RANKL expression. Life Sci 2009;85:693-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Cheng JT. Review: Drug therapy in Chinese traditional medicine. J Clin Pharmacol 2000;40:445-50.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Sun JS, Lin CY, Dong GC, Sheu SY, Lin FH, Chen LT, et al. The effect of Gu-Sui-Bu (Drynaria fortunei J. Sm) on bone cell activities. Biomaterials 2002;23:3377-85.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Kitchens JA, Schwartz SA, Schindler WG, Hargreaves KM. Iontophoresis significantly increases the trans-dentinal delivery of osteoprotegerin, alendronate, and calcitonin. J Endod 2007;33:1208-11.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Huang HF, You JS. The use of Chinese herbal medicine on experimental fracture healing. Am J Chin Med 1997;25:351-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Zhang H, Xing WW, Li YS, Zhu Z, Wu JZ, Zhang QY, et al. Effects of a traditional Chinese herbal preparation on osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Maturitas 2008;61:334-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Zhang W, Ma D, Zhao Q, Ishida T. The effect of the major components of Fructus Cnidii on osteoblasts in vitro. J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2010;3:32-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Ma KC, Zhu TY, Wang FX. Stimulative effects of gusuibu (Drynaria baronii) injection on chick embryo bone primordium calcification in vitro. Am J Chin Med 1996;24:77-82.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Liu HC, Chen RM, Jian WC, Lin YL. Cytotoxic and antioxidant effects of the water extract of the traditional Chinese herb gusuibu (Drynaria fortunei) on rat osteoblasts. J Formos Med Assoc 2001;100:383-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Chen LL, Tang Q, Yan J. Therapeutic effect of aqueous-extract from a traditional Chinese medical herb Drynaria fortunei on rat experimental model of alveolar bone resorption. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2004;29:549-53.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Gangarosa Sr LP, Hill JM. Modern iontophoresis for local drug delivery. Int J Pharm 1995;123:159-71.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Kalia YN, Naik A, Garrison J, Guy RH. Iontophoretic drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2004;56:619-58.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Lingyong J, Chao W, Yuqiong W, Peng Z, Bing F. Does Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Agonists plus add-back therapy bring an aurora to orthodontic treatment? Dent Hypotheses 2012;3:95-8.  Back to cited text no. 15
  Medknow Journal  
16.Kolahi J, Abrishami M, Davidovitch Z. Microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cells: A new approach to accelerating the orthodontic tooth movement. Med Hypotheses 2009;73:340-1.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Yi J, Zhang L, Yan B, Yang L, Li Y, Zhao Z. Drinking coffee may help accelerate orthodontic tooth movement. Dent Hypotheses 2012;3:72-5.  Back to cited text no. 17
  Medknow Journal  
18.Xu X, Zhao Q, Yang S, Fu G, Chen Y. A new approach to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement in women: Orthodontic force application after ovulation. Med Hypotheses 2010;75: 405-7.  Back to cited text no. 18
    




 

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Abstract
Introduction
The Hypothesis
Evaluation of th...
Conclusion
References

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