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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL HYPOTHESIS
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 53-54

Mutanase-containing chewing gum: A new potential approach for prevention of dental caries


1 Founder and Managing Editor of Dental Hypotheses, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Periodontology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Date of Web Publication5-Jun-2013

Correspondence Address:
Mohamadreza Abrishami
Department of Periodontology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2155-8213.113010

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  Abstract 

Introduction: Study on the effect of topically applied mutanase on plaque formation and caries in rats showed strong inhibition of dental caries. Furthermore, it has been shown that the presence of mutanase in dental plaque may affect the synthesis and structure of sticky, extracellular glucans. The Hypothesis: Mutanase can be easily added to gum base. After chewing of mutanase-containing chewing gum, the enzyme will be released into the oral cavity. Mutanase will hydrolyze sticky, extracellular glucans, e.g., mutan inhibiting cariogenic bacteria to cohere/adhere and form plaque. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The main challenge with this hypothesis is the source of mutanase. It can be obtained from Paenibacillus sp. MP-1 or Trichoderma harzianum F-340. Directly compressible medicated chewing gum bases can be used to avoid inactivation of mutanase during the manufacturing process.

Keywords: Dental caries, medicated chewing gum, mutanase


How to cite this article:
Kolahi J, Abrishami M. Mutanase-containing chewing gum: A new potential approach for prevention of dental caries. Dent Hypotheses 2013;4:53-4

How to cite this URL:
Kolahi J, Abrishami M. Mutanase-containing chewing gum: A new potential approach for prevention of dental caries. Dent Hypotheses [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 May 23];4:53-4. Available from: http://www.dentalhypotheses.com/text.asp?2013/4/2/53/113010


  Introduction Top


Over the years, patient convenience and patient compliance-orientated research in the field of drug delivery has resulted in bringing out potential innovative drug delivery options. Out of which, medicated chewing gum offers a highly convenient patient-compliant way. [1] It would be a high-quality approach for dental medication. [2],[3]

However, of more interest, study on the effect of topically applied mutanase on plaque formation and caries in rats showed strong inhibition of dental caries. The pronounced effect of topically applied mutanase may only be explained by the presence of adequate receptors in the oral cavity allowing long-term retention and release of the enzyme. [4] Furthermore, it has been shown that the presence of mutanase in dental plaque may affect the synthesis and structure of sticky, extracellular glucans formed by streptococcal glucosyltransferases. [5]


  The Hypothesis Top


Paenibacillus is a genus of facultative anaerobic, endospore-forming bacteria. There has been a rapidly growing interest in Paenibacillus spp. These bacteria produce various extracellular enzymes such as polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and proteases, which can catalyze a wide variety of synthetic reactions. [6]

Laetiporus sulphureus (fungi that grows on trees and found in Europe and North America [7] ) is a source of α-1,3-glucan. The water-insoluble fraction of its fruiting bodies of Laetiporus sulphureus from 0.15% to 0.2% (w/v) induced mutanase activity in Paenibacillus sp. MP-1 at 0.35 μ ml−1 . [8] Mutanase can be obtained by salting out with ammonium sulfate of cell-free filtrates obtained after culture of Paenibacillus MP-1 on a medium containing cell-wall preparation.

The mutanase extensively hydrolyzed streptococcal mutan, giving 23% of saccharification, and 83% of solubilization of glucan after 6 h. It also degraded α-1,

3-polymers of biofilms, formed in vitro by Streptococcus mutans, even after only 3 min of contact. [8]

Mutanase can be easily added to gum base. After chewing of sugar free mutanase-containing chewing gum, the enzyme will be released into the oral cavity. Mutanase will hydrolyze sticky, extracellular glucans, e.g., mutan inhibiting cariogenic bacteria to cohere/adhere and form plaque. These events will inhibit bacterial colonization and prevents bacterial invasion of tooth tissues.


  Evaluation of the Hypothesis Top


The main challenge with this hypothesis is the source of mutanase. As mentioned above, mutanase can be obtained from Paenibacillus sp. MP-1 using fruiting bodies of Laetiporus sulphureus. [8] Also, other methods is available, e.g., production via Trichoderma harzianum F-340. [9]

Another question is an activity of released mutanase from gum base. Mutanase is an enzyme and will be damaged by heat and pH during gum manufacturing process. Directly compressible medicated chewing gum bases will solve this problem. The launch of the Health in Gum (directly compressible powder gum) range of products in 2009 by world leading gum base supplier CAFOSA has initiated growing interest from the pharmaceutical world. Health in Gum is a co-processed chewing gum powder excipient containing a mixture of gum base, polyols, plasticizers and anticaking agents. It has low moisture and does not require heat, allowing dry powder mixing of the formula. [10]

 
  References Top

1.Chaudhary SA, Shahiwala AF. Medicated chewing gum - A potential drug delivery system. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2010;7:871-85.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Kolahi J, Soolari A, Ghalayani P, Varshosaz J, Fazilaty M. Newly formulated chlorhexidine gluconate chewing gum that gives both anti-plaque effectiveness and an acceptable taste: A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Int Acad Periodontol 2008;10:38-44.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Hattab FN, Green RM, Pang KM, Mok YC. Effect of fluoride-containing chewing gum on remineralization of carious lesions and on fluoride uptake in man. Clin Prev Dent 1989;11:6-11.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Guggenheim B, Regolati B, Schmid R, Mühlemann HR. Effects of the topical application of mutanase on rat caries. Caries Res 1980;14:128-35.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Hayacibara MF, Koo H, Vacca-Smith AM, Kopec LK, Scott-Anne K, Cury JA, et al. The influence of mutanase and dextranase on the production and structure of glucans synthesized by streptococcal glucosyltransferases. Carbohydr Res 2004;339:2127-37.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Paenibacillus. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Available from: http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paenibacillus. [Last accessed on 2013 Mar 30].  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Laetiporus sulphureus. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Available from: http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laetiporus_sulphureus. [Last accessed on 2013 Mar 30].  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Pleszczyn′ska M, Wiater A, Szczodrak J. Mutanase from Paenibacillus sp. MP-1 produced inductively by fungal α-1,3-glucan and its potential for the degradation of mutan and Streptococcus mutans biofilm. Biotechnol Lett 2010;32:1699-704.   Back to cited text no. 8
    
9. Wiater A, Szczodrak J, Pleszczynska M, Próchniak K. Production and use of mutanase from Trichoderma harzianum for effective degradation of streptococcal mutans. Braz J Microbiol 2005;36:137-46.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Directly compressible medicated chewing gum bases from Cafosa. Available from: http://www.manufacturingchemist.com/news/article_page/Directly_compressible_medicated_chewing_gum_bases_from_Cafosa/74863. [Last accessed on 2013 Mar 30].  Back to cited text no. 10
    




 

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Abstract
Introduction
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Evaluation of th...
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