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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 83-86

Dental activity of the five top growing countries in the area of knowledge creation: A retrospective bibliometric study


1 Independent Research Scientist, Founder and Managing Editor of Dental Hypotheses, Isfahan, Iran
2 Department of Periodontology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
4 Public Health Sciences, Division of Biostatistics, University of California, Davis, California, USA

Date of Web Publication8-Aug-2013

Correspondence Address:
Mohamadreza Abrishami
Department of Periodontology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/2155-8213.116331

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  Abstract 

Introduction: Aim of this retrospective study is to bibliometricaly analyze dental activity of five countries with the highest growth rate of scientific publication in 2011. Materials and Methods: To evaluate dental activity SCImago journal and country rank were used. Searches were done in all categories of dentistry subject area in Feb 2013. Number of published articles, number of citations, number of self-citation, number of international collaborations and H index were used as bibliometric variables. Countries with more than 5% increase in the number of published articles in 2011 were included in the study. Results: For showing the way of differences between countries, we have presented the trend graphs according to the number of dental articles, number of citations, number of self-citations, and number of international collaborations for each country. Discussion: India has the most published dental articles. Yet, its number of citations and H index are not the first. China has the largest number of citations and international collaborations. Spain and South Korea have the highest H index. Thus far, they have the highest mean of self-citation. Scientific output has grown 11 times faster in Iran than the world average. Yet, its dental activity is generally lower than other growing countries in the area of knowledge creation.

Keywords: Bibliometrics, China, India, Iran, knowledge creation, scientific publication, South Korea, Spain


How to cite this article:
Kolahi J, Abrishami M, Mansourian M, Bang H. Dental activity of the five top growing countries in the area of knowledge creation: A retrospective bibliometric study. Dent Hypotheses 2013;4:83-6

How to cite this URL:
Kolahi J, Abrishami M, Mansourian M, Bang H. Dental activity of the five top growing countries in the area of knowledge creation: A retrospective bibliometric study. Dent Hypotheses [serial online] 2013 [cited 2019 Aug 19];4:83-6. Available from: http://www.dentalhypotheses.com/text.asp?2013/4/3/83/116331


  Introduction Top


Science is a global enterprise. Today there are over 7 million researchers around the world, drawing on a combined international research and development (R&D) spend of over US$1000 billion (a 45% increase since 2002), and reading and publishing in around 25,000 separate scientific journals per year. [1]

Nevertheless, in an article titled "365 Days: 2011 in review", [2] Nature journal of science has analyzed the published articles in the first 10 months of 2011. Nature compared 40 top countries in this respect. Europe has allocated 38.4% of the share to itself, while North and South America have published 29.5%, Asian-Pacific countries 27.8% and Middle-Eastern and African countries achieved 4.4% of the papers.

By producing 22.7% of the articles, the United States has the first rank, while China has published 10.4% to be the second country and United Kingdom was third by 6.6% of the whole papers. [3]

Five countries with the highest growth rate.

[Figure 1] summarizes percentage increase in the number of published articles compared to 2010 of the top growing countries in area of knowledge creation. By a 20% increase in the number of published articles compared to 2010, Iran has gained the first rank, China the second rank by 15%, and South Korea and India third and fourth positions by more than 10%, respectively, and Spain fifth by nearly 10%. [2]
Figure 1: Top growing countries in the area of knowledge creation measured by percentage increase in the number of published articles in 2011 compared to 2010. Countries sorted by their rank in number of published articles in 2011 (Diagram courtesy of Nature)

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The aim of this retrospective study is to bibliometricaly analyze dental activity of five countries with the highest growth rate of scientific publication in 2011.


  Materials and Methods Top


To evaluate dental activity SCImago journal and country rank ( http://www.scimagojr.com ) were used. [4] This portal obtains data from Scopus ® database from 1996. Searches were done in all categories of dentistry subject area in Feb 2013. Number of published articles, number of citations, number of self-citation, number of international collaborations (ratio of documents whose affiliation includes more than one country address) and H index ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H-index ) were used as bibliometric variables to compare these countries. Countries with more than 5% increase in the number of published articles in 2011 were included in the study.


  Results Top


For showing the way of differences between countries, we have presented the trend graphs according to the number of dental articles [Figure 2], number of citations [Figure 3], number of self-citations [Figure 4], and number of international collaborations [Figure 5] for each country. In addition, [Figure 6] shows H indexes.
Figure 2: Number of dental articles published by the five countries

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Figure 3: Number of citations achieved by the five countries

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Figure 4: Number of self-citations conducted by the five countries

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Figure 5: International collaborations of the five countries

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Figure 6: H-index of the five countries.

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  Discussion Top


Iran embarked one of the fastest build-up of scientific capabilities the world witnessed during last 2 decades. [5],[6] Iran's scientific output rose 18-fold between 1996 and 2008, from 736 published papers to 13,238. Scientific output has grown 11 times faster in Iran than the world average. [7] Yet, its dental activity is generally lower than other growing countries in the area of knowledge creation. Among these five countries, India has the most published dental articles [Figure 2]. Yet, its number of citations and H-index are not the first. China has the largest number of citations and international collaborations [Figure 2] and [Figure 5]. Finally, Spain and South Korea have the highest H-index [Figure 6]. Thus far, they have the highest mean of self-citation.


  Limitations of the study Top


In this study, economic variables, for example, gross domestic product at purchasing power parity (GDP, PPP) per capita, population, research and development (R&D) expenditure, R&D expenditure (% of GDP, PPP) were not adjusted in analysis. These variables have crucial role in scientific activity of countries. However, as shown in [Appendix 1], [Additional file 1] [Appendix 2], [Additional file 2] [Appendix 3] [Additional file 3] and [Appendix 4] [Additional file 4] there are remarkable differences among the five countries regarding these variables. China and India have extraordinarily higher populations, decreasing their paper per population ratio [Appendix 1]. Spain and South Korea have remarkably higher GDP and PPP [Appendix 2]. China has the highest R&D expenditure [Appendix 3] and South Korea has the highest R&D expenditure (% of GDP, PPP) [Appendix 4]. Interestingly, Iran with the lowest R&D expenditure and R&D expenditure (% of gross domestic product at purchasing power parity), despite international sanctions, has the fastest growth rate. [5],[6],[7]

 
  References Top

1.Knowledge, networks and nations: Global scientific collaboration in the 21 st century. The Royal Society, London: 2011. Available from: http://www.royalsociety.org/uploadedFiles/Royal_Society_Content/Influencing_Policy/Reports/2011-03-28-Knowledge-networks-nations.pdf [Last accessed on 2013 Jun 24].  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Van Noorden R. 365 days: 2011 in review. Nature 2011;480:426-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.TUMSPR News: Nature Journal Compares 40 Top Countries for Published Articles in 2011; Iran Highest Percentage Increase from 2010. Available from: http://publicrelations.tums.ac.ir/english/news/detail.asp?newsID=30105 [Last accessed on 2013 Jun 24].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.ImagoSC. SJR-SCImago Journal and Country Rank. 2007. Available from: http://www.scimagojr.com [Last retrieved on 2013 Jan 29].  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Kolahi J, Abrishami M. Contemporary remarkable scientific growth in Iran: House of Wisdom will rise again. Dent Hypotheses 2013;4:1-3.  Back to cited text no. 5
  Medknow Journal  
6.MacKenzie D. Iran showing fastest scientific growth of any country. New Scientist (Science in Society) 2010. Available from: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn18546-siran-showing-fastest-scientific-growth-of-any-country.html [Last accessed on 2013 Jun 24].  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Coghlan A. Iran is top of the world in science growth. NewScientist (Science in Society) 2011. Available from: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn18546-iran-showing-fastest-scientific-growth-of-any-country.html [Last accessed on 2013 Jun 24].  Back to cited text no. 7
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6]



 

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Abstract
Introduction
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