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COMMENTARY
Suicide rate in the dental profession: Fact or myth and coping strategies
Brian M Lange, Eric Y. K. Fung, David G Dunning
October-December 2012, 3(4):164-168
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.106845  
This article summarizes relevant scientific data on the alleged high suicide rate among dentists as compared to other health care professions. Potential contributing risk factors for the dental profession are identified. In addition, a brief review is provided for major depressive disorder, a contributor to increased suicide, along with its symptoms, underlying theory, drug treatment and coping skills to combat this disorder.
  43,397 1,058 1
ORIGINAL HYPOTHESIS
Calcium hydroxide-induced resorption of deciduous teeth: A possible explanation
GR Ravi, RV Subramanyam
July-September 2012, 3(3):90-94
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.103910  
Introduction: Calcium hydroxide (CaH) is customarily used for permanent teeth but not for deciduous dentition because it is known to cause internal resorption in the latter. Though this has been attributed to chronic inflammation and odontoclasts, the exact mechanism has not been elucidated. The Hypothesis: The authors propose an explanation that CaH-induced odontoclastogenesis could be multifactorial. Odontoclasts may result from fusion of cells of monocyte/macrophage series either due to inflammatory mediators or through stimulation by stromal odontoblasts /fibroblasts. Pre-existing progenitor cells of primary tooth pulp because of their inherent propensity may transform into odontoclasts. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The hypothesis discusses the role of various inflammatory cytokines that may be responsible for CaH-induced transformation of pre-odontoclasts to odontoclasts. Alternatively, pre-existing progenitor cells with proclivity to change into odontoclasts may cause internal resorption. The loss of protective layer of predentin over mineralized dentin may also make the primary tooth more susceptible to resorption.
  10,952 1,393 2
PERSPECTIVE
Perspectives of oil pulling therapy in dental practice
T Lakshmi, R Rajendran, Vidya Krishnan
October-December 2013, 4(4):131-134
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.122675  
Oil pulling has its origin in Ayurvedic medicine, is a natural remedy to improve oral health. Its antibacterial properties help to eradicate the bacteria and other debris from adhering to the oral cavity. It reduces the accumulation of plaque, prevents halitosis, cavities, gingivitis. It is used to heal the bleeding gums and mouth ulcers. Oil pulling with sesame oil improves overall health. Other than oral health, oil pulling also helps in reducing asthma, allergies, chronic fatigue, diabetes, migraine headaches and chronic skin problems. It works by detoxifying or cleansing the body. The aim of this article is to highlight the benefits of oil pulling in management of oral health.
  8,784 708 1
ORIGINAL RESEARCHES
Proposed classification of medial maxillary labial frenum based on morphology
Ranjana Mohan, Pankaj Kumar Soni, Munagala Karthik Krishna, Mohan Gundappa
January-March 2014, 5(1):16-20
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.128108  
Objectives: To propose a new classification of median maxillary labial frenum (MMLF) based on the morphology in permanent dentition, conducting a cross-sectional survey. Materials and Methods: Unicentric study was conducted on 2,400 adults (1,414 males, 986 females), aged between 18 and 76 years, with mean age = 38.62, standard deviation (SD) = 12.53. Male mean age = 38.533 years and male SD = 12.498. Female mean age = 38.71 and female SD = 12.5750 for a period of 6 months at Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Northern India. The frenum morphology was determined by using the direct visual method under natural light and categorized. Results: Diverse frenum morphologies were observed. Several variations found in the study have not been documented in the past literature and were named and classified according to their morphology. Discussion: The MMLF presents a diverse array of morphological variations. Several other undocumented types of frena were observed and revised, detailed classification has been proposed based on cross-sectional survey.
  8,641 715 1
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Electronic apex locator: A comprehensive literature review - Part I: Different generations, comparison with other techniques and different usages
Hamid Mosleh, Saber Khazaei, Hamid Razavian, Armita Vali, Farzad Ziaei
July-September 2014, 5(3):84-97
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.136744  
Introduction: To compare electronic apex locators (EAL) with others root canal determination techniques and evaluate other usage of this devices. Materials and Methods: "Tooth apex," "Dental instrument," "Odontometry," "Electronic medical," and "Electronic apex locator" were searched as primary identifiers via Medline/PubMed, Cochrane library, and Scopus data base up to 30 July 2013. Original articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected and reviewed. Results: Out of 402 relevant studies, 183 were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In this part, 108 studies are presented. Under the same conditions, no significant differences could be seen between different EALs of one generation. The application of EALs can result in lower patient radiation exposure, exact diagnosing of fractures, less perforation, and better retreatment. Conclusions: EALs were more accurate than other techniques in root canal length determination.
  5,734 1,251 -
CLINICAL INNOVATION
Custom-made different designs of pressure clips for the management of ear lobe keloids
Anshul Chugh, Anita Hooda, Punam Bishnoi
October-December 2013, 4(4):135-138
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.122676  
Introduction : Keloids are frequent finding after physical trauma. Keloids of ear lobe are common complication of ear piercing, although its incidence remains unknown. The use of intrakeloid resection and a form pressure device to treat pinna keloids. The recommendation of this therapy is to maintain constant pressure and duration of pressure therapy was about 25 weeks. Clinical innovation : This article will present inexpensive custom made pressure clips of various designs. The dimensions of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) plates in ear lobe clip presented by us though they esthetically not so good, but colored PMMA has been used to make it decorative and acceptable by most of the patients. This has been an encouraging experience to use the different designs. Discussion : Ear clip prosthesis has been developed for maintaining pressure on ear lobe keloids before and after surgical removal. The prosthesis includes an ear clip to which heat-polymerized acrylic resin is attached, which covers the keloid area. Pressure therapy is widely used to help in the early maturation of scar tissue and to prevent the recurrence of keloid. The preliminary report by Brent revealed that constant light pressure was an effective means of preventing post excision recurrence of ear lobe keloids using a decorative, spring-pressure earring.
  5,908 212 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Antimicrobial activity of a new nanobased endodontic irrigation solution: In vitro study
Leila Moghadas, Mahdi Shahmoradi, Tahmineh Narimani
October-December 2012, 3(4):142-146
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.106838  
Aims: The purpose of this study was to introduce a nanosilver particle based endodontic irrigation solution and to evaluate its antimicrobial efficacy in comparison to 5.25% NaOCl. Materials and Methods: In an in vitro experiment the effect of the new irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC: 29212) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), two most commonly isolated species of root canal space, was studied in different time intervals of 3, 5 and 15 minutes. Results: No growth of E. faecalis and S. aureus was observed in any of irrigant groups and any of different time intervals. Conclusion: These results indicate that the new irrigant is as effective as NaOCl in preventing the bacterial growth of common root canal bacteria.
  4,662 999 1
Effect of pomegranate and aloe vera extract on streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study
Priya Subramaniam, Shilpy Dwivedi, Eswara Uma, KL Girish Babu
July-September 2012, 3(3):99-105
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.103920  
Introduction: The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the antibacterial effect of pomegranate and aloe vera extracts on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extracts of pulp from both Punica granatum (pomegranate) and Aloe barbadensis miller (aloe vera) were prepared to concentrations of 5, 25, 50 and 100%. Pure sorbitol powder dissolved in distilled water was taken as the negative control. Streptococcus mutans (S mutans) was isolated from saliva by inoculation on to Mitus Salivarius Bacitracin (MSB) agar, which was then streaked onto agar plates containing Brain Heart Infusion. In each petridish, wells were prepared and using a sterile micropipette, 125μl of the specific concentration of the extract (pomegranate/ aloe vera/ sorbitol) was deposited in each well. This was done in triplicate for each concentration of the extracts. The effect of different concentrations of the extracts on S mutans was observed and the data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Pomegranate extract showed significantly higher inhibitory effect on S mutans at all concentrations (P≤0.05). On comparison of all three extracts at different concentrations, a significant difference (P≤0.05) was observed only at 50 and 100% concentrations. The inhibitory effect of pomegranate extract was significantly different when compared to aloe vera and sorbitol extracts. (P≤0.01). Discussion: Pomegranate extract has a significant antibacterial effect on S mutans at all concentrations.
  4,526 922 1
CASE REPORTS
Management of periodontal furcation defects employing molar bisection; a case report with review of the literature
Sukant Sahoo, Karan Sethi, Prince Kumar, Aman Bansal
July-September 2013, 4(3):97-101
Introduction: The management and long-term retention of molars exhibiting furcation invasion have always been a challenge in dentistry. Latest innovations in dental sciences and higher patient's expectations have led to more conservative treatment approaches in saving the teeth with hopeless periodontal prognosis. When periodontal disease affects the furcation area of tooth, the chance of its exfoliation increase considerably. Here, authors have sought to discuss a comprehensive review of literature with case report for the management of decayed mandibular first molars (with furcation invasion) using bicuspidization procedure. Case Report: The furcation defect (in mandibular first molars) was clinically detected in a middle aged male, which was converted into two bicuspids by intentional bisection procedures. The definitive treatment included restoration with double crowns. Bicuspidization procedure with double metal crowns truly yielded a satisfactory result. Discussion: The treatment of furcations affected by periodontal disease is one of the most difficult problems for the general dentist and periodontist. An increase in the exposed root surface, anatomical peculiarities and irregularities of the furcation surface all favor the growth of bacteria. These problems make it harder for the patient to maintain hygiene, and impede adequate treatment. Bisection/bicuspidization of the decayed molars can be a practicable treatment option when there is vertical bone loss involving root/roots with furcation defect. In real terms, it is the separation of mesial and distal roots of mandibular molars along with its crown portion, where both segments are then retained individually.
  4,746 494 -
CLINICAL INNOVATION
Proposed technique for fabricating complete denture
Abdulsalam Ali Zwiad
October-December 2012, 3(4):150-154
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.106841  
Introduction: Reduction of the visits for fabricating complete dentures are welcomed by both dentists and patients and this might be an aspect of the new changes in prosthodontic treatment according to the suggested new methods. Clinical Innovation: Complete dentures fabricated by the technique described in this report reduce processing time, cost and efforts since the technique does not require the use of gypsum materials, metal flasks or other related materials to obtain a mold for packing the heat cured acrylic resin as might be needed with the conventional method. This method requires only an appropriate volume of silicone impression material to provide the required mold and a heat pressure machine for processing and polymerization of the heat-cured acrylic resin. Although this technique might be difficult to be applicable by all dentist but it could be consider an advisable method. Discussion: Because the record base in this technique is made of heat cured resin, it provides a reliable denture base with better retention and stability and it overcomes the shortcomings that may be faced during registration of vertical dimension. This technique meets the basic requirements for a successful complete denture which is well tolerated by the patient's mouth.
  4,162 535 1
MINI REVIEW
Lemon grass oil for improvement of oral health
Ruckmani Rajesvari, T Lakshmi
October-December 2013, 4(4):115-117
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.122671  
Lemon grass essential oil has been used for decades to treat respiratory infections, sinusitis, bladder infections, high cholesterol, digestive problem, varicose veins and also for regeneration of connective tissue. It has anti spasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-septic, insect repellent, sedative, vasodilator and flavoring properties. In china, it has been used traditionally as a remedy for stomach and liver diseases and also to treat rheumatism. Since lemon grass oil possess various pharmacological actions, it is also quite useful in dentistry. Hence, the objective of this article is to highlight various uses of lemon grass oil in the dental field and in the medical field in order to aid the professionals for future research.
  3,968 420 -
ORIGINAL RESEARCHES
Oral epithelium in diabetics: A cytomorphometric correlation
KP Nandita, Karen Boaz, N Srikant, Amitha J Lewis, Nidhi Manaktala
April-June 2014, 5(2):59-65
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.133428  
Objectives: The study aims to establish an etiological association between diabetes and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity by cytomorphometric analysis of the oral epithelium. Study Design: Smears were obtained from three distinct oral sites - buccal mucosa, dorsum of the tongue and the floor of the mouth in ten controls and ten patients previously diagnosed with type II diabetes. The oral smears were stained with Papanicolaou SA-36 solution. An eye - piece graticule was used to obtain the cytoplasm and nuclear dimension; where larger dimension was denoted as "D" and the smaller dimension was denoted as "d". The nuclear area (NA), nuclear diameter (ND), cytoplasmic area (CA) and the cytoplasmic / nuclear ratio (C/N) were evaluated from 50 cells predominant in each oral site. Statistical Analysis: The cytomorphometric data obtained was compared between the group of diabetic patients and the control groups using the student's t- test (SPSS version 11.0). Results: Results showed that the nuclear area and the nuclear diameter of oral epithelial cells were increased in diabetic patients, as compared to non- diabetics, while the non- diabetic patients demonstrated an increase in nuclear ratio. Conclusions: The results from this study suggest that diabetes mellitus can cause alterations in oral epithelial cells that are detectable with exfoliative cytology.
  4,002 347 -
CASE REPORTS
A ray of hope for the hopeless: Hemisection of mandibular molar with socket preservation
Pushpendra K Verma, Ruchi Srivastava, Harak C Baranwal, Anju Gautam
October-December 2012, 3(4):159-163
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.106844  
Introduction: The management, treatment and long-term retention of mandibular molar teeth with furcation involvement have always been a challenge in periodontal therapy. Hemisection has been used successfully to retain teeth with furcation involvement. The term hemisection refers to the sectioning of a molar tooth, with the removal of an unrestorable root which may be affected by periodontal, endodontic, structural (cracked roots), or caries. Case Report : This case report describes a simple procedure of hemisection in a mandibular molar with socket preservation with help of an alloplastic bone graft and subsequent restoration of the tooth with fixed prothesis. Discussion: Hemisection represents a form of conservative procedure, which aims at retaining as much of the original tooth structure as possible. It may be a suitable alternative to extraction. Hemisection of the affected tooth allows the preservation of tooth structure, alveolar bone and cost savings (time and money) over other treatment options. The preservation of posterior abutment teeth permits oral rehabilitation with fixed bridges instead of removable prosthesis. Conclusion: The keys to long term success appear to be thorough diagnosis followed by interdisciplinary approach with endodontic, surgical and prosthetic procedures. Preservation of a hopeless tooth is possible by selecting patients with good oral hygiene, and careful surgical and restorative management.
  3,808 501 -
CLINICAL INNOVATION
New clinical technique for fabrication immediate partial denture
Abdulsalam Ali Zwiad
October-December 2013, 4(4):139-142
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.122677  
Immediate partial denture is a choice of treatment due to various cases of teeth extraction such as badly carious teeth, periodontal disease, eruption problems, trauma, and other reasons. Many choices are used to replace the lost teeth; one of these choices is a removable plastic denture in which hot cured acrylic resin should be used to fabricate such denture. Aim of Study: To provide an applicable technique to fabricate an immediate partial denture by reducing and declining the prosthetic steps and some materials in proportional to the conventional method. Clinical Procedures: Maxillary and mandibular stone casts are mounted to a simple articulator and the procedures are explained as step by step to fabricate an immediate partial denture without using the conventional methods and material, just using a small quantity of white cold cure acrylic resin to fabricate the artificial teeth, hot cure acrylic resin for the denture base and mold made of a silicon impression material are used to fabricate an immediate partial denture. Conclusion: The finished immediate partial denture showed a good retention and produced the exact shapes and sizes of the extracted teeth with low cost and less time for a dentist and patient.
  3,642 556 -
PERSPECTIVE
Gummy smile: A contemporary and multidisciplinary overview
Marcelo Tomás Oliveira, Gustavo Otoboni Molina, Alvaro Furtado, Janaina Salomon Ghizoni, Jefferson Ricardo Pereira
April-June 2013, 4(2):55-60
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.113014  
The aim of this study was to elucidate the diagnosis, etiology, and therapeutic options for the treatment of gummy smile. The smile level is an imaginary line after the lower superior lip and used seems to be convex. The presence of 3 mm or grater continuous gingival band exposures to natural smile or speech performs the gummy smile. Original articles studying the diagnosis, etiology, and therapeutic alternatives for the treatment of gummy smile were searched in the Medline, Scopus, Science direct, and EBSCO host databases. Together with some example and diagnosis method was purposed. The authors conclude that the etiology is multifactorial and can be showed excessive vertical maxillary grow up, excessive labial contraction, shorter upper lip, gingival excess, and extrusion of the anterior teeth. The therapeutics alternative are often multidisciplinary, besides can be used orthognathic, plastic and periodontal surgery, and orthodontic.
  3,347 799 3
ORIGINAL HYPOTHESIS
Drinking coffee may help accelerate orthodontic tooth movement
Jianru Yi, Liang Zhang, Boxi Yan, Liang Yang, Yu Li, Zhihe Zhao
April-June 2012, 3(2):72-75
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.100391  
Introduction: Developing new methods to enhance orthodontic tooth movement and shorten the duration of treatment has always been desired. However, to date, no therapies have been widely used in clinics. Recent studies and feedback information from patients have shown that drinking coffee may accelerate orthodontic tooth movement. The Hypothesis: Drinking coffee, as a daily habit of many people, can be an effective accelerator of tooth movement with little side effect for caffeine can break the calcium balance in bone tissue and directly inhibit the development of osteoblasts, leading to temporary decreased bone mineral density and consequently inducing faster orthodontic tooth movement. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Much effort has been made to explore therapies to shorten orthodontic treatment period with limited success. Daily coffee consumption may be a promising approach to enhance orthodontic tooth movement for its reversible effect on bone mineral density and calcium balance.
  3,300 631 1
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Evidence-based assessment of the efficacy and effectiveness of light/laser activation in in-office dental bleaching
Reem A Ajaj, Francesco Chiappelli, Linda Phi, Amy Giroux, Carl Maida, Neal Garrett, Olga Polinovsky
April-June 2012, 3(2):55-66
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.100388  
Many in-office bleaching techniques use the light/laser in conjunction with the bleaching agent claiming more favorable bleaching results. Controversy still exists in the literature as to the role of a light/laser in bleaching results. The goal of this study is to determine, through Comparative Effectiveness-Efficacy Research and Analysis for Practice (CEERAP), if the co-use of light/laser activation with the chemical bleaching agent has improved teeth whitening compared to using the chemical bleaching agent alone. Systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials on the research question were obtained using multiple search engines. Assessment of the level and quality of evidence and acceptable sample analysis were performed for the Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs). Due to heterogeneity of the acceptable studies, meta-analysis was performed only on the two most homogenous studies. Qualitative assessment of the acceptable studies was performed. The strength of clinical recommendation was assessed. Only one qualitative systematic review was found. Eight articles were accepted as high quality RCTs. The meta-analysis shows preferable outcome when using the light activation with the bleaching material than when using the bleaching material alone. Qualitative assessment of the acceptable studies shows conflicting results. Most studies agreed that the use of light is proven to increase the whitening effect of the bleaching agent, especially for a short term after treatment. Additional studies with greater consistency in methodology and outcomes are needed to be able to reach a definite consensus regarding the effectiveness of using light during bleaching through an overarching meta-analysis for more powerful statistical results.
  3,352 573 2
CASE REPORTS
Rare occurrence of bilaterally impacted mandibular supernumerary teeth
Vinay Kumar Bhardwaj, Jai Ram Kaundal, Anil Chug, Sanjeev Vaid, Abhishek Soni, Mohinder Chandel
April-June 2012, 3(2):83-85
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.100396  
Introduction: Supernumerary teeth are present in addition to the normal complement of teeth in permanent or deciduous dentitions. Incidence is high in permanent dentition, affects both the gender. They are more common in males, with the male to female ratio of 2:1. When the supernumerary teeth are causing problems such as, extensive resorption of adjacent teeth, hindering the eruption or malposition of permanent teeth, early surgical intervention is recommended. Case Report: A case of bilaterally impacted supernumerary premolars was reported when an orthopentomograph view was taken which revealed the presence of additional teeth impacted in relation to 35-36 and 45-46. Surgical removal was done as they were resorbing the roots of teeth in their vicinity. Discussion: Literature reports increased occurrence of the supernumeraries in the maxilla but supernumerary premolars are more likely to develop in the mandible. Etiology of supernumerary teeth is ambiguous and is due to following conditions:atavism or reversion, heredity, aberrations during embryologic formation, progress zone, and unified etiologic explanation.
  3,348 464 2
Pleomorphic adenoma: Choice of radiographic imaging modality - Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging? Illustration through a case report
Shalu Rai, Malik Rohit, Mandeep Kaur, Prabhat Mukul
January-March 2013, 4(1):33-36
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.110181  
Introduction: Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign neoplasm of the major salivary glands arising primarily from the parotid gland. Computed tomography (CT) is one of the primary imaging modalities used to assess the tumors of salivary glands. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may provide additional information over CT. Case Report: We report the case of a 60-year-old male with a slowly enlarging, well-defined, round, painless, non-fixated, rubber-like swelling over the left ramus region below the ear, measuring about 4 × 4.5 cm, covering the lower border of the mandible near the angle. A provisional diagnosis of PA was given and CT and MRI were used to study the lesion. Discussion: Through this case, which was suspected to have undergone malignant transformation because of indistinct margins and focal hypodense areas on CT but was later confirmed to be a benign salivary gland tumor on MRI, we illustrate the role of CT and MRI as diagnostic aids in PA and emphasize on what should be the choice of imaging modality for parotid tumors.
  3,356 367 -
ORIGINAL HYPOTHESIS
An index developed for the determination of oral hygiene motivation success
Taner Arabaci, Turgut Demir
January-March 2013, 4(1):9-12
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.110183  
Introduction: The purpose of this article is to develop a new index system to identify the individual oral hygiene score (OHS) and the level of the motivation success by using some scales, which are an indicator of the individual oral hygiene status. In this way, the level of personal oral hygiene would be determined and a standard motivation success scale would be presented by comparing the oral hygiene levels measured before and after the motivation application. The Hypothesis: In this hypothesis, an index was primarily formed in order to obtain an individual OHS with the total values of plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and calculus index (CI) scores. Motivation success levels of the individuals were calculated and classified by using the rate of change of OHS between the sessions. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: This index system would form a basis for future strategies in preventive dentistry. Standard and common scores in one individual or a wide population will be attained easily and effectively.
  3,166 472 -
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Prosthodontic care in diabetes mellitus: Old problem, new findings, yet more questions
Prince Kumar, Roshni Goel, Ashish Kumar, Vishal Singh
April-June 2012, 3(2):86-86
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.100397  
  2,952 607 -
PERSPECTIVE
Clinical applications of extra-oral periapical radiography
Sujatha S Reddy, Atul Kaushik, Sri Rekha Reddy, Kunal Agarwal
October-December 2012, 3(4):147-149
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.106839  
Radiographic examination forms an integral part of clinical dentistry, with some form of radiographs necessary on the majority of patients. Intra-oral periapical (IOPA) radiographs form the backbone of imaging for diagnosis and follow-up of various dento-facial pathologies. However, certain patient populations are unable to tolerate intra-oral films/sensors due to various reasons. A not-so recent development called extra-oral periapical (EOPA) radiography may be a useful adjuvant to such a situation, at least in the near future. It is essentially a technique where the film is placed extra-orally overlying the tooth of interest. The following manuscript is an attempt to throw light on this technique and the impact it may have on various disciplines of dental practices. The advantages and disadvantages of EOPA radiography and it's comparison to IOPA radiography has been discussed.
  3,025 501 -
ORIGINAL HYPOTHESIS
Antibiotic prophylaxis in infective endocarditis: Use or abuse?
Nisha Thakur, Narotam Ghezta
April-June 2012, 3(2):76-78
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.100393  
Introduction: The American Heart Association (AHA) recommendations for antimicrobial prophylaxis for infective endocarditis (IE) are controversial. According to the new guidelines released by the AHA now, the only patients to receive antibiotics will be those at highest risk, i.e. those with a prosthetic heart valve, a history of endocarditis, certain forms of congenital heart disease or valvulopathy after heart transplantation, and only before certain dental procedures. Unfortunately, these guidelines are still based largely on expert opinion, with very little hard evidence to show that antibiotic therapy actually prevents IE. The Hypothesis: The reported incidence of bacteremia during dental intervention ranges from 10% to 100% and, with daily brushing and flossing, from 20% to 68%. Because bacteremia also occurs during brushing and flossing of teeth, why give prophylaxis just for dental procedures? Moreover, the risks of causing adverse or anaphylactic reactions from antibiotics as well as contributing to the nationwide antibiotic resistance problem are issues not to be taken lightly. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The hypothesis discusses the AHA recommendations for antimicrobial prophylaxis for IE, indicating some inherent limitations associated with it, and stresses upon the fact that these recommendation should also be updated, if not completely changed, to cope up with the advancements in the proper treatment plan.
  2,854 506 -
CLINICAL INNOVATION
An innovative technique to distalize maxillary molar using microimplant supported rapid molar distalizer
Meenu Goel, Anup Holla, Sukant Sahoo, Rakesh Mittal
July-September 2013, 4(3):92-96
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.116339  
Introduction: In recent years, enhancements in implants have made their use possible as a mode of absolute anchorage in orthodontic patients. In this paper, the authors have introduced an innovative technique to unilaterally distalize the upper left 1 st molar to obtain an ideal Class I molar relationship from a Class II existing molar relationship with an indigenous designed distalizer. Clinical Innovation: For effective unilateral diatalization of molar, a novel cantilever sliding jig assembly was utilized with coil spring supported by a buccally placed single micro implant. The results showed 3 mm of bodily distalization with 1 mm of intrusion and 2° of distal tipping of upper left 1 st molar in 1.5 months. Discussion: This appliance is relatively easy to insert, well-tolerated, and requires minimal patient cooperation compared to other present techniques of molar distalization. Moreover, it is particularly useful in cases that are Class II on one side and Class I on the other, with a minor midline discrepancy and nominal overjet. Patient acceptance level was reported to be within patients physiological and comfort limits.
  2,756 425 -
EDITORIAL
What would be the tooth structure at non-carbon-based-life?
Jafar Kolahi, Yadolah Soleymani Shayesteh
April-June 2013, 4(2):37-38
DOI:10.4103/2155-8213.112998  
  2,882 248 2
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