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   2015| October-December  | Volume 6 | Issue 4  
    Online since November 27, 2015

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Involving community dentists in evidence-based dentistry: A hypothetical quest for the next frontier
Francesco Chiappelli
October-December 2015, 6(4):127-128
  1,480 4,179 1
Need of a new classification for post and core failure
Sougaijam Vijay Singh, Anil Chandra
October-December 2015, 6(4):141-145
Introduction: Since many years, post has been commonly used to provide adequate support and retention for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth. Although it is successful, several cases of failure have been reported. Various classifications of teeth for post and core were given in the past. However, classification on the basis of failure of post and core has not yet been described. Methods: Electronic search on PubMed and a hand search were performed to identify relevant literature, which were thoroughly screened before the articles were included in the study. Results: Based on the search, various classifications related to post and core had been given by many authors; however, it was observed that certain aspects of the classification regarding the failure of post and core were not yet included. Therefore, the manuscript is an attempt to emphasize the need to develop a classification system for the failure of post and core. Conclusion: The new classification on failure of teeth restored with post and core has been proposed by the authors as Type I, Type II, Type III, and Type IV depending upon the type of failure. The new classification aims at better understanding the failure of post and core and can be a valuable tool during epidemiological surveys.
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Assessment of blinding success among dental implant clinical trials: A systematic review
Jafar Kolahi, Saber Khazaei
October-December 2015, 6(4):129-133
Introduction: It is widely believed that blinding is a cornerstone of randomized clinical trials and that significant bias may result from unsuccessful blinding. However, it is not enough to claim that a clinical trial is single- or double-blinded and that assessment of the success of blinding is ideal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of assessment of blinding success among dental implant clinical trials and to introduce methods of blinding assessment to the implant research community. Methods: In November 2014, PubMed was searched by blinded and experienced researchers with the query "implant AND (blind* OR mask*)" using the following filters: (1) Article type: clinical trial; (2) Journal categories: dental journals; (3) Field: title/abstract. Consequently, title/abstract was reviewed in all relevant articles to find any attempt to assess the success of blinding in dental implant clinical trials. Results: The PubMed search results yielded 86 clinical trials. The point of interest is that when "blind* OR mask*" was deleted from the query, the number of results increased to 1688 clinical trials. This shows that only 5% of dental implant clinical trials tried to use blinding. Disappointingly, we could not find any dental implant clinical trial reporting any attempt to assess the success of blinding. Conclusion: The current status of turning a blind eye to unblinding in dental implant clinical trials is not tolerable and needs to be improved. Researchers, protocol reviewers, local ethical committees, journal reviewers, and editors should make a concerted effort to incorporate, report, and publish such information to understand its potential impact on study results.
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Implications and applications of systematic reviews for evidence-based dentistry and comparative effectiveness research: A sample study on antibiotics for oro-facial cellulitis treatment
Quyen Bach, Vandan Kasar, Francesco Chiappelli
October-December 2015, 6(4):134-140
Introduction: Comparative effectiveness and efficacy research for analysis and practice (CEERAP) was performed to assess the effects of penicillin-based versus erythromycin-based antibiotic treatments in patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) including cellulitis, impetigo, and erysipelas. Because SSTIs, especially orofacial cellulitis, are volatile infectious diseases of a life-threatening nature, research on the most efficacious remedies is necessary. Methods: The stringent bibliome yielded three systematic reviews, which were examined for quality of research synthesis protocol and clinical relevance. Results: The sample size of three, rendered the statistical analyses and cumulative meta-analysis problematic. Conclusion: The systematic review outlined here should aid in increasing clinical awareness, improving patient health literacy, and promoting consensus of the best evidence base (BEB) to mitigate the threat of sepsis and potential death caused by cellulitis infections.
  2,185 596 -
Using PRP and human amniotic fluid combination for osteogenesis in rabbit socket preservation
Amir Hossein Moradi, Ali Kamalinejad, Nasrin Jalilian, Shantia Kazemi, Mozafar Khazaei
October-December 2015, 6(4):151-155
Introduction: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is used as an adjunct treatment during periodontal grafting surgery because of its capability of enhancing healing process. Amniotic fluid is a rich source of growth factors and hyaluronic acid (HA) and a good point to study its properties of wound healing and bone formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic properties of a combination of amniotic fluid and PRP in rabbit's dental socket preservation. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 24 healthy male laboratory rabbits (average weight 3,125 ± 185 gr) that were randomly allocated into four groups. PRP for the first group, human amniotic fluid (HAF) for the second group, a combination of PRP and HAF (PRHA) for the third group was used. In the fourth (control) group, no biomaterial was used. In each group, half of the rabbits were sacrificed at 4 weeks following surgery and the rest were sacrificed after 8 weeks. Histological analysis of biopsies of the sockets was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software (version 16) and P-value <0.05 was considered significance. Results: All three experimental groups showed positive effect on bone formation in terms of area of trabecular bone and number of osteocytes and also vessel formation. Socket preservation using HAF and PRHA showed the highest impact on bone formation. Socket preservation using HAF also had the highest impact on vessel formation. Conclusion: PRHA and HAF appear to be useful for enhancing bone formation. Since there was no difference between HAF and PRHA, it seems beneficial to use HAF due to its simplicity of application.
  2,108 264 1
Saliva: A fluid in search of a diagnostic use
Jia Liu
October-December 2015, 6(4):156-158
Since saliva has been studied for more than 50 years and is relatively easy to collect, it is reasonable to ask why saliva is not in wider use as a diagnostic fluid. Here we discuss the criteria for diagnostic tests for diseases, barriers to use saliva for diagnostic testing, and the possibility of overcoming barriers to acceptance of saliva for diagnosis.
  1,752 268 1
Increased literacy of the best evidence base optimizes patient-clinician communication in convergent translational health care: Relevance for patient-centered modalities
Allen Khakshooy, Vandan Kasar, Melissa Nahcivan, Quyen Bach, Francesco Chiappelli
October-December 2015, 6(4):146-150
Introduction: Dentistry in particular and biomedicine in general have undergone a fundamental transformation over the recent decades, which have been formalized by the Affordable Care Act, 2010. In brief, modern contemporary health care has evolved from procedure-driven and intervention-centered care based on research evidence to the administration and delivery of care that is patient-centered, effectiveness-focused, and that utilizes the best evidence base generated by systematic research synthesis (i.e., evidence-based). The present conceptualization of health care integrates translational research and translational effectiveness, and allows convergence of the multiple specialization fields of biomedicine (e.g., dentistry, internal medicine, and psychiatry) as well as the various medical traditions globally (i.e., Western, Ayurvedic, and Chinese medical traditions, etc.). The Hypothesis: Here, we propose the hypothesis that increased literacy of the best evidence base optimizes patient-clinician communication in the current convergent translational health care model including dental care. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: We discuss the salient points of this proposition, and outline the relevance of certain salient convergent patient-centered modalities of health care that intimately intertwine medicine and dentistry.
  1,727 213 -
The necessity of accountability and ethics in Dental Service Organizations
Joseph Everett
October-December 2015, 6(4):159-160
Dental Service Organizations (DSOs) are an up-and-coming platform for dental treatment, and are quickly becoming a lucrative business. In light of this, a closer look must be taken at the ethical foundation of these organizations to ensure that the pursuit of profit does not outweigh the best interests of the patient.
  1,543 184 -
Re: Perspectives of oil pulling therapy in dental practice
Sumit Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar Salaria, Japneet Sharma, Amritpal Kaur
October-December 2015, 6(4):163-163
  1,207 181 -
The unequal distribution of oral health care in the United States
Brianna Muñoz
October-December 2015, 6(4):161-162
With the vast capability to treat a wide array of maladies, the US health care system stands at the forefront of innovation and technological advancement. Yet, despite the improvement in the oral health status of the population in its entirety, there exist profound and persistent disparities in dental care throughout the US. Although health care disparities is a multifaceted issue with a wide array of implications, population-based public health programs, federal agencies, and educational institutions should be responsible for instituting new methods to alleviate the plight of the people.
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