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   2018| October-December  | Volume 9 | Issue 4  
    Online since January 29, 2019

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The Effect of Using Articaine Versus Lidocaine for Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block on Pain After Root Canal Treatment: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Study
Ali Ghazalgoo, Masoud Saatchi, Saber Khazaei, Elham Shadmehr
October-December 2018, 9(4):80-83
Introduction: The control of pain associated with root canal treatment (RCT) is crucially important in endodontics. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of using articaine versus lidocaine local anesthetics for inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) on pain after RCT. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular first molar were selected. The patients randomly received either a cartridge of lidocaine or articaine using IANB. RCT was initiated 15 min after the injection. Lip numbness was a requisite for all the patients. The post-operative pain was assessed by using 170-mm visual analog scale at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, 36, and 48 h after the treatment. The data were analyzed by SPSS 22 statistical software. Results: The mean total post-treatment pain in the lidocaine group was 37.1 ± 32.9 whereas it was 25.4 ± 26.4 for articaine group (P < 0.001). Pain at 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after the RCT in articaine group was significantly less than the lidocaine group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Using articaine for IANB may increase post-RCT comfort than lidocaine. Further study is needed to confirm the results.
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The Longevity of Band and Loop and Pontic–Crown Fixed Space Maintainers in Children Aged 4 to 7 Years: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Alireza Eshghi, Samin Tayaran, Hamid Mosleh
October-December 2018, 9(4):90-95
Introduction: The best way to prevent malocclusion and reduce the length of the arch in cases of early loss of primary teeth is placement of space maintainer. The aim of the present study was to compare the longevity of band and loop space maintainer with that of pontic–crown space maintainer. Materials and Methods: In this randomized control trial, 40 children aged 4 to 7 years, admitted to Isfahan School of Dentistry, were studied using convenient sampling method. They were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. In the control group, the stainless steel crown (SSC) was fitted to the second primary molar tooth (E), and after laboratory stages, band and loop were cemented on the SSC. In the intervention group, a suitable SSC was fitted to the second primary molar tooth, and the molding was performed with alginate. After the laboratory procedure, the crown–pontic complex was cemented on the tooth. Both groups were followed-up every 6 months and the longevity of both space maintainers was examined for 18 months. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis, and rank logarithm test. Results: Within 18 months, four cases of decementation were seen in the band and loop group: two cases in the first 6 months (P = 0.487), one case in the second 6 months (P = 0.474), and one case in the third 6 months (P = 0.472); no loss due to decementation was observed in the crown–pontic group. There was only one treatment failure due to loss of solder that happened in the crown–pontic group during the second 6 months (P = 1). Four failures in the band and loop group and one failure in the crown–pontic group showed no significant difference between two groups in terms of frequency of failure (P = 0.152, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis). Conclusion: Pontic–crown space maintainer is a suitable alternative for band and loop space maintainer in treating the early loss of primary molars.
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Revising Average Condylar Inclinations Using Electronic Pantograph Assessment: A Cross-Sectional Study
Safoura Ghodsi, Sasan Rasaeipour
October-December 2018, 9(4):84-89
Introduction: Condylar inclinations produce a frame for the occlusal morphology of dental restorations. Applying arbitrary average values for the articulator settings has brought about more practicality to the prosthesis fabrication procedures. The present study aimed at determining the average sagittal condylar inclination (SCI) and Bennett angle (BA) using electronic pantograph and comparing the inclination quantities obtained from different methods to proposed average measurements. Materials and Methods: Using Cadiax Compact II, condylar inclinations were recorded in 50 participants, generally healthy without any signs of joint problems. The recorded average values were compared with proposed mean values using one sample t-test. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. The available articles were also searched using electronic databases. Results: A statistically significant difference was observed in the mean SCI (41.66°) and the proposed average value (33°) (P < 0.05). The difference between BA mean value (10.10) and arbitrary proposed value (15) was even more pronounced (P < 0.05). Pantographic records show different values compared to average propositions for condylar inclinations. Conclusion: Ongoing controversies concerning the average values for articulator settings proposed a revision in traditionally used arbitrary settings as well as Hanau formulation on the sagittal and lateral inclination interrelationships.
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Is Systemic (Interstitial Fluid) Acidosis an Initial Event in the Etiopathogenesis of Dental Caries? A Hypothesis
Sandhya Tamgadge, Avinash Tamgadge
October-December 2018, 9(4):96-100
Introduction: Dental caries is a microbial disease which affects retentive areas of the teeth. It has shown significant increase in incidence and prevalence in modern population. Various theories have been postulated in an attempt to explain the etiopathogenesis of dental caries. Despite their popularity, there are many questions which various theories haven’t been able to answer. And still there is no definite cure for dental caries. Consequently, in most cases the process can’t be reversed. Therefore, to tackle this issue other risk factors involved in the etiopathogenesis need to be explored. The Hypothesis: It could be suggested that there might be additional systemic factors, e.g. systemic acidosis, in pathogenesis of dental caries, in addition to proven localized causative factors. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Various hypotheses have been discussed, on the basis of histopathology, and various research articles. The demineralization of bone osteoporosis and tooth demineralization of dental caries have been correlated to evaluate the hypothesis. Few parameters have been added in the proven local factors of etiopathogenesis of dental caries.
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Wikipedia and Dental Literature
Jafar Kolahi, Pedram Iranmanesh
October-December 2018, 9(4):77-79
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Improving Oral Health Literacy in the Digital Age: Recommendations for a Collaboration Between the Dental Profession and Voice-Activated Virtual Assistants
Bailey M Hollihan
October-December 2018, 9(4):101-104
Within the healthcare system, patients continue to take on a larger role in managing their health. However, due to the low prevalence of health literacy among the US adult population, many patients are unable to make appropriate medical decisions. The Internet is further contributing to the problem. Patients are looking to the Internet, which can include extremely complex or inaccurate text, when they have questions about their health more often than speaking with their providers. This presents the risk for patients to become confused, misled, or even believe false information about their health. In order for patients to manage their health successfully, they must develop health literacy. This will be possible through advancements in internet technology that will provide the patients with clear, credible health information.
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