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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 2: HBMMSCs residing around the peri-implant bone tissue immunomodulate the osseointegration process, through the ESWT bio activation effect. The mechanical stimuli generated by ESWT trigger the release of exosomes by HBMMSCs, generating tolerogenic dendritic cells (Tol-Dcs) and increasing the presence of the M2 phenotype of the macrophage. Also ESWT increases the angiogenesis what have a fundamental role in the maintenance of the HBMMSCs. Ag = antigen; DC = dendritic cell; Tol-DCs = tolerogenic dendritic cells; Ex = exosomes; HBMMSC = mesenchymal stem cells derived from the bone marrow; FGBC = giant foreign body cell; M2 = M2 phenotype of macrophage; Ob = osteoblasts; Oc = osteoclast; Ost = osteocyte; Angs = angiogenesis

Figure 2: HBMMSCs residing around the peri-implant bone tissue immunomodulate the osseointegration process, through the ESWT bio activation effect. The mechanical stimuli generated by ESWT trigger the release of exosomes by HBMMSCs, generating tolerogenic dendritic cells (Tol-Dcs) and increasing the presence of the M2 phenotype of the macrophage. Also ESWT increases the angiogenesis what have a fundamental role in the maintenance of the HBMMSCs. Ag = antigen; DC = dendritic cell; Tol-DCs = tolerogenic dendritic cells; Ex = exosomes; HBMMSC = mesenchymal stem cells derived from the bone marrow; FGBC = giant foreign body cell; M2 = M2 phenotype of macrophage; Ob = osteoblasts; Oc = osteoclast; Ost = osteocyte; Angs = angiogenesis