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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 107-110

Evaluation of the Effect of Natural and Industrial Orange Juices and Beverage on Surface Roughness of Orthodontic Bonding Composite: An In Vitro Study

1 Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
2 Department of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

Date of Submission10-Jul-2022
Date of Decision14-Jul-2022
Date of Acceptance04-Aug-2022
Date of Web Publication19-Sep-2022

Correspondence Address:
Rusal Saad Ahmed
MSc Student Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/denthyp.denthyp_76_22

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Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of natural and industrial orange juices and a beverage on the surface roughness of composite material. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 30 disc-shaped specimens with a thickness of 2 mm and a diameter of 10 mm were taken from an orthodontic bonding composite. The specimens were randomly assigned into three groups (i.e., natural orange juice, Rani orange juice, and Mirinda orange beverage). The roughness of the specimens was examined by atomic force microscope at baseline, 1 day (6 hours), and 1 week (6 hours per day) after immersing. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA test and Bonferroni post hoc test. Results: The surface roughness of composite exposed to the selected drinks increased significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Natural orange juice, Rani orange juice, and Mirinda can affect the surface roughness of composite, which varies based on the type of drink and immersion time.

Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, orange juices, orthodontic bonding composite, roughness

How to cite this article:
Ahmed RS, Saleem AI. Evaluation of the Effect of Natural and Industrial Orange Juices and Beverage on Surface Roughness of Orthodontic Bonding Composite: An In Vitro Study. Dent Hypotheses 2022;13:107-10

How to cite this URL:
Ahmed RS, Saleem AI. Evaluation of the Effect of Natural and Industrial Orange Juices and Beverage on Surface Roughness of Orthodontic Bonding Composite: An In Vitro Study. Dent Hypotheses [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Sep 28];13:107-10. Available from:

  Introduction Top

Dietary awareness is an important issue in modern society. The consumption of carbonated drinks and fruit juices is popular among the youth of today, which may cause erosion due to their acidity. Acid erosion has a clinical significance because both teeth and restoration are exposed to low pH levels in the complex oral environment, which causes the integrity of their surfaces to deteriorate.[1]

In dentistry, composites are becoming more popular particularly because of their superior esthetic outcomes. One of the fundamental purposes of dental restoration is to obtain smooth surfaces, resulting in better aesthetics and minimizing the accumulation of dental plaque. Therefore, roughness is an important property of the restoration surface.[2]

This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effects of natural and industrial orange juices and a beverage on the surface roughness of orthodontic bonding composite.

  Materials and Methods Top

Study design

The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad in Iraq (approval number: 558322).

The sample size for this study was determined by using G*power ( with the power of study = 95%, with three groups, three-time intervals, under all these conditions, the sample size is about 10 samples. This sample size was also computed in a previous study by Hashemikamangar et al.[3] The sample was assigned by the investigator without randomization as they have similar properties.

Mold fabrication and sample preparation

A clear acrylic sheet (Perspex, Clairvaux-les-Lacs, France) which was 15 cm in width, 20 cm in length, and 2 mm in thickness was used to fabricate the mold. The sample measurements were designed using computer software (AutoCAD 2019). Then, the cutting was done by a CNC or computer numerical control.

A total of 30 disks of orthodontic bonding composite (3M Transbond XT, Lakewood, NJ) were prepared using molds of 10 mm diameter and 2 mm height. The material was managed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The mold was placed on a transparent celluloid strip (Torvm, Russia) and glass slide (Artedent, China) and then the composite material was placed into the mold space using a plastic instrument. The filled mold hole was covered with a second transparent celluloid strip to form a smooth surface and a second glass slide was applied with light pressure to remove extra material from the mold and avoid the presence of air.[4]

The material was photopolymerized for 20 seconds on both sides using an LED light curing unit (Eighteeth, Changzhou Sifary Medical Technology Co, Ltd, Changzhou, China). Polymerizing against a glass surface is a method commonly used by researchers to produce a standardized surface finish and is preferred to exclude air from the composite surface to minimize oxygen absorption which produces an oxygen-inhibited layer.[5]

Sample grouping and immersion procedure

After separation from the mold, the composite discs were assigned randomly (using Google random number generator) into three groups (natural orange juice, Rani orange juice (Rani drink, Al Injaz for Manufacturing and Filling Beverages Company Ltd, Iraq), and Mirinda orange beverage (Baghdad Soft Drinks Co, Baghdad, Iraq, under license from Pepsi Co Inc)) and were placed into a flat-bottomed well cell culture plate and immersed in distilled water for 48 hours for primary water absorption and full polymerization process.[6]

Baseline surface roughness measurements were taken blindly for all the specimens using an atomic force microscope (AFM; TT-2 AFM, Signal Hill, CA). AFM analysis was performed in contact mode. The images were taken at 5000 × 5000 nm.[7]

The specimen’s roughness was examined after 6 hours (1 day) and 42 hours (7 days, 6 hours per day) while being immersed in the drinks. Group A specimens were immersed in handmade natural orange juice using Iraqi orange fruits (pH = 3.4), group B specimens were immersed in Rani orange juice (pH = 4), and group C specimens were immersed in Mirinda orange beverage (pH = 2.8). The specimens were kept in distilled water at 37°C when not immersed.

Statistical analysis

Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests using R software (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). Data analysts were blinded to the type of materials used in the study.

  Results Top

All three beverages significantly increased the surface roughness of the composite (P < 0.05). The surface roughness of composite specimens was increased progressively from baseline level to 42 hours of immersion [Figure 1].
Figure 1 Box and whisker plot showing results of the surface roughness (micrometer) tests. At baseline, there was no significant difference (P = 0.69). All other within-subject and between-subject comparisons were significant except two showed P values.

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  Discussion Top

Most people consider the consumption of soft drinks and fruit juices to be relatively harmless; nonetheless, there are several major health dangers linked with regular soft drink consumption. Dentistry’s main purpose is to improve a person’s quality of life, which can be achieved through preventing disease, reducing pain, and improving mastication, speech, and aesthetics.[5]

Restorative material success depends upon its mechanical behavior, physical and chemical characteristics, as well as clinical indications. So, when selecting materials for repairing erosive lesions, acid resistance is an important property to consider.[1]

Regarding this study, surface roughness assessment was chosen as it is well-known that roughened surfaces facilitate bacterial colonization and plaque accumulation. This, in turn, increases risks for caries and periodontal inflammation.[8],[9] AFM was found to be a reliable method for obtaining a surface roughness at the nanoscale dimensions and described it in 3D topographical detail was used.[7]

This study was designed to simulate the testing period and period of immersion of a previous study carried out by Meshki and Hoseini.[6] The predicted null hypothesis was disproved by the findings in our study as the tested material showed a significant increase in surface roughness after immersion in the selected soft drink.

Mirinda orange beverage was selected in this study as it is highly acidic with a pH of roughly 2.85, as described by Hamouda.[10] The highest value of surface roughness was recorded after immersion in Mirinda followed by natural juice, while the lowest value was for the Rani orange juice. This result is consistent with that of Hamouda[10] who studied the effects of various beverages on the hardness, roughness, and solubility of esthetic restorative materials and found that Mirinda orange showed a significant increase in the surface roughness to a greater extent than that noted for other immersion media. The increase in surface roughness of composite specimens after immersion in Mirinda orange beverage may be related to the tendency of fillers to drop out from resin materials and the disintegration of matrix components when exposed to low pH conditions.[10] The results of the present study were also consistent with that of Saba et al.[11] who studied the surface roughness of compomer and giomer materials after immersion in different beverages including Mirinda, and found that the acidic attack presented by the low pH of the Mirinda orange might have resulted in the loss of structural ions from the glassy phase of both the compomer and giomer. However, many investigations have reported that the erosive potential of an acidic solution is not only connected to its pH, but also the titratable acidity and buffer capacity of the solution. Therefore, the low pH and high titratable acidity of the Mirinda orange beverage might indicate its erosive potential.[12],[13]

Though fresh orange juice is a rich source of vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers, it has erosive properties due to the presence of citric acid.[14] In our study, orange juice was chosen due to its ready availability and its acidity is equivalent to that of soft drinks.[15] Orange juice was also used by Saba et al.[11]in their study regarding the erosive potential of cola and orange fruit juice on tooth-colored restorative materials, in which they found that the surface roughness values of the restorative materials used in the study had increased following immersion in orange juice compared to the preimmersion values. The change in surface roughness of specimens after immersion in natural orange juice may be explained by other reasons. Juices contain water and absorption of water can cause swelling and reduce the frictional forces between the polymerized chains and soften the resin, thus removing filler particles from the surface and causing surface roughness.[16] The study results agreed with that of Diansari et al.[17] who found an increase in the surface roughness of composite after immersion in orange juice which was thought to be due to the water absorption property possessed by the composite resin. The other reason is the acid content that speeds up the hydrolysis process which leads to degradation of the matrix structure and release of monomers, thus accelerating deboning. This agrees with research by Dentiana et al.[18] as the release of Bis-GMA monomer in nanofiller composite resins was greater in specimens immersed in acid solution (pH = 3.5) than in neutral solution (pH = 7). Fresh juice was also used in research by Maganur et al.[19] who studied the effect of soft drinks and fresh fruit juice on the surface roughness of commonly used restorative materials and they concluded that frequent exposure to low pH fruit beverages is directly related to the marginal integrity and surface texture of the composite.

Rani orange juice was chosen for this study as it is a popular brand with a low pH value. Rani orange juice specimens showed changes in surface texture. This agrees with the research by Abu-Bakr et al.[20] who studied changes in the mechanical properties and surface texture of compomer immersed in various media and found that low pH media affects the chemical erosion of the restorative materials by acid etching the surface and leaching the principal matrix-forming cations (Na, Ca, Al, and Sr). As a result, individual particles dissociate from each other leading to the occurrence of a rough surface.

The limitation of this study is that it is an in vitro investigation with a limited number of samples and it does not fully replicate the conditions inside the oral cavity such as the remineralizing effects of saliva.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Turssi C, Hara A, Serra M, Rodrigues Jr A. Effect of storage media upon the surface micromorphology of resin-based restorative materials. J Oral Rehabil 2002;29:864-71.  Back to cited text no. 1
Hemmings K, Truman A, Shah S, Chauhan R. Tooth wear guidelines for the BSRD part 1: aetiology, diagnosis and prevention. Dent Update 2018;45:483-95.  Back to cited text no. 2
Hashemikamangar S, Pourhashemi S, Talebi M, Kiomarsi N, Kharazifard M. Effect of organic acids in dental biofilm on microhardness of a silorane-based composite. Restor Dent Endod 2015;40:188-94.  Back to cited text no. 3
Al-Taie LA, Al-Aubaydi FM, Al-Shamma AM. The effect of Pepsi Cola beverage on surface roughness of two composite resins (in vitro study). Muntasiria Dent J 2010;7:9-14.  Back to cited text no. 4
Frazier K, Rueggeberg F, Mettenburg D. Comparison of wear-resistance of class V restorative materials. J Esthet Restor Dent 1998;10:309-14.  Back to cited text no. 5
Meshki R, Hoseini H. Effect of natural and industrial juices on surface microhardness of microhybrid and nanohybrid composites. J Dent Indones 2021;28:63-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
Kakaboura A, Fragouli M, Rahiotis C, Silikas N. Evaluation of surface characteristics of dental composites using profilometry, scanning electron, atomic force microscopy and gloss-meter. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2007;18:155-63.  Back to cited text no. 7
Kooi T, Tan Q, Yap A, Guo W, Tay K, Soh M. Effects of food-simulating liquids on surface properties of giomer restoratives. Oper Dent 2012;37:665-71.  Back to cited text no. 8
Bajwa N, Pathak A. Change in surface roughness of esthetic restorative materials after exposure to different immersion regimes in a cola drink. ISRN Dent 2014;2014:353926.  Back to cited text no. 9
Hamouda I. Effects of various beverages on hardness, roughness, and solubility of esthetic restorative materials. J Esthet Restor Dent 2011;23:315-22.  Back to cited text no. 10
Saba D, Abdel Gawad F, Abd Ellatif M. In vitro assessment of water sorption, solubility and surface roughness of compomer and giomer materials after immersion in different beverages. Egypt Dent J 2017;63:205-14.  Back to cited text no. 11
Bamise C, Ogunbodede E. Dental erosion: immediate pH changes of commercial soft drinks in Nigeria. Tanzania Dent J 2008;15:1-4.  Back to cited text no. 12
Rajavardhan K, Sankar A, Kumar M, Kumar K, Pranitha K, Kishore K. Erosive potential of cola and orange fruit juice on tooth colored restorative materials. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2014;4:208-12.  Back to cited text no. 13
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
Edwards M, Creanor S, Foye R, Gilmour W. Buffering capacities of soft drinks: the potential influence on dental erosion. J Oral Rehabil 1999;26:923-7.  Back to cited text no. 14
İlday N, Bayindir Y, Erdem V. Effect of three different acidic beverages on surface characteristics of composite resin restorative materials. Mater Res Innov 2010;14:385-91.  Back to cited text no. 15
Shalan LA. Effect of acidic and energy drinks on surface roughness of three types of bulk fill composite materials. J Bagh Coll Dent 2016;325:1-7.  Back to cited text no. 16
Diansari V, Ningsih D, Amini H. Surface roughness evaluation of nanofiller composite resin after immersion in 50% calamansi orange juice (Citrus microcarpa). J Syiah Kuala Dent Soc 2021;6:12-7.  Back to cited text no. 17
Dentiana P, Sunarintyas S, Siswomihardjo W. Pengaruh variasi pH terhadap pelepasan monomer dari resin komposit nanofiller. Jurnal Material Kedokteran Gigi 2016;5:20.  Back to cited text no. 18
Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of soft drinks and fresh fruit juice on surface roughness of commonly used restorative materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 19
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