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ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 142-144

A Comparison of Solubility Among Zinc Oxide Eucalyptus and Zinc Oxide Eugenol: An In Vitro Study


Department of Pedodontic and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq

Date of Submission21-Sep-2022
Date of Decision25-Oct-2022
Date of Acceptance26-Oct-2022
Date of Web Publication12-Dec-2022

Correspondence Address:
Hella Thamer Zedan
Department of Pedodontic and Preventive Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad
Iraq
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/denthyp.denthyp_116_22

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  Abstract 


Introduction: We aimed to compare solubility between zinc oxide eugenol and zinc oxide eucalyptus. Methods: One hundred and twenty standardized plastic ring molds were constructed and filled with zinc oxide eugenol and zinc oxide eucalyptus. The specimens were allowed to dry for 24 hours and then weighed to the nearest 0.0001 g. Then divided randomly into three groups and immersed in distilled water for 1, 7, and 21 days. Then samples were removed from the solution and allowed to dry for 24 hours. Then they were weighed again, the percentage of weight loss was then determined as solubility. Data analyzed by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and the Tukey’s post-hoc test using MedCalc 20.104. Results: Zinc oxide eucalyptus solubility is more than zinc oxide eugenol. All tests of between-subjects effects and within-subjects effects showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The 1st day results showed solubility of not more than 3% following storage in distilled water which meet the requirements of ISO 6876, where both zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) (0.05%) and zinc oxide eucalyptus (0.15%) satisfied these criteria.

Keywords: Obturation material, water solubility, zinc oxide eugenol, zinc oxide eucalyptus


How to cite this article:
Zedan HT, Jafar ZJ. A Comparison of Solubility Among Zinc Oxide Eucalyptus and Zinc Oxide Eugenol: An In Vitro Study. Dent Hypotheses 2022;13:142-4

How to cite this URL:
Zedan HT, Jafar ZJ. A Comparison of Solubility Among Zinc Oxide Eucalyptus and Zinc Oxide Eugenol: An In Vitro Study. Dent Hypotheses [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Feb 1];13:142-4. Available from: http://www.dentalhypotheses.com/text.asp?2022/13/4/142/363432




  Introduction Top


It is well-known that the solubility of the root canal filling materials is undesirable, because the process of dissolution may result in gaps and voids along. These spaces would provide an environment for bacterial colonization and passage of microorganisms and their products into the periapical tissues.[1] Moreover, soluble components leaching from the root canal filling may have undesirable biological effects on the surrounding healthy tissues.[2]

Since the 1890s the zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) cement has been widely used as the main endodontic filling for primary teeth, due to easy handling, excellent cavity sealing ability, bactericidal properties, and a sedative effect on sensitive teeth.[3] But known by its flaws like its cytotoxicity[4],[5] due to eugenol ions as demonstrated in human osteoblastic cells to decrease dehydrogenase enzyme activity in dose-related manner.[6] So there is a need to replace eugenol oil by another oil, which seen to be better replaced by natural oils.[7] It is widely believed that antioxidant activities of natural herbal medicines are also effective in reducing the toxicities of toxic agents or other drugs.[8]

As today, various endodontic filling materials are available in the marked that compete for more accuracy and prosperities such as the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). However, their cost is still a major concern. Cost–benefit considerations make ZOE material as the most widely used in clinical dentistry, especially in developing countries.[3] As an attempt to improve the qualities of such valued material and as a continue of a previous research[9] where it was introduced the zinc oxide eucalyptus which it had a better antimicrobial activity, in this study we aimed to assess the solubility of zinc oxide eucalyptus.


  Material and Methods Top


The study protocol approved by the Central Ethical Committee in the College of Dentistry/University of Baghdad (Approval number: 280, Date: March 31, 2021).

Sample size was determined using G power software 3.1.9.7 (http://www.gpower.hhu.de/) with 95% power, effect size of 0.7, significance level at 0.05, and 10% dropout ratio, a sample size of 40 is required. However, 120 samples for each material were divided randomly (using https://www.random.org/) into three groups (1, 7, and 21 days). Each sample was intended for single immersion for more accuracy.[10]

Before and after weighing of the specimens has been used for stating the best indicator of the amount of the solubility.[10]

The solubility of the materials was calculated by using the following formula:

Solubility = W0Wt/W0 ×100%

W0: is the weight of the sample before immersion.

Wt: is the weight of the sample after immersion period.

After mixing and blending of the tested materials (one scoop [0.2 g] zinc oxide powder [Produits Dentaires SA {PD}, Vevey, Switzerland] and seven drops [0.07 cm3] eugenol oil [Produits Dentaires SA {PD}, Vevey, Switzerland] or eucalyptus oil [prepared in agriculture school of Baghdad University]),[11] each material was molded to fit plastic ring molds having an internal diameter of (20.0 ± 1 mm) and a height of (1.5 ± 0.5 mm), pressing them by metal forming and two glass plates (600 mg). All molds were covered by glass plates to avoid air entrapment and left to set at 37°C for 24 hours for complete setting prior immersion.

After cleaning all molds, a copper wire was fixed at each mold to hang the specimens in a plastic dish that the specimens did not touch and the sealers remained undisturbed in the dish.

Prior to the immersion of the samples, the whole molds were numbered and weighed thrice prior to use (accuracy ± 0.0001 g) using calibrated electronic micro-balance (Sartorius, Goettingen, Germany) thrice and the average reading was calculated.

Each one of the samples was kept separately each in glass bottle containing 50 mL of distilled water at 37°C in such a way that both surfaces of each sample were freely accessible to the liquid.

After 24 hours group 1 was removed from the distilled water using tweezers, grasping merely the plastic part, dehydrate for 1 hour at 37°C. After that, each disc was weighed to the microgram level.[10] This was repeated after 7 days for group 2 and then after 21 days for group 3.

During the testing time, the water in the bottles was not be altered or added to. At 1 day, 7 days, and 21 days, the desiccation and weighing operation was carried out.

Data analyzed by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and the Tukey’s post-hoc test using MedCalc 20.104 (MedCalc Software Ltd., Ostend, Belgium).


  Results Top


Results of the present study showed that the solubility of zinc oxide eucalyptus is higher than zinc oxide eugenol [Figure 1]. All tests of between-subjects effects and within-subjects effects showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.001).
Figure 1 Bar plot showed mean and standard deviation of solubility percentage among different study groups and timelines. To better understand the differences in 1st day, the results also showed with logarithmic scale.

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  Discussion Top


The results present in vitro study, showed that zinc oxide eucalyptus had more solubility than ZOE in each tested period, and the solubility increased over time.

According the International Standard (ISO) 6876 for root canal sealing materials and the ANSI/ADA Specifications No. 57 and No. 30, the solubility of a sealer will not go beyond 3% mass fraction after immersion in water for 24 hours.[12],[13],[14]

The 1st day results showed solubility of not more than 3% following storage in distilled water which meet the requirements of ISO 6876, where both ZOE (0.05%) and zinc oxide eucalyptus (0.15%) satisfied these criteria.

This agreed with findings from earlier investigations.[15],[16],[17] Also, the results of this study coincide with the results from other in vivo studies, in which ZOE sealer proved to possess good sealing ability.[1],[18]

The 7th day results showed the solubility rate of ZOE remains within the acceptable level even after 7 days (2.43%), which indicates good resistance to solubility. The results of this study disagree with the findings of Schäfer and Zandbiglari,[18] in which the ZOE showed a consistent continuous and marked weight loss over 21 days but it agrees with zinc oxide eucalyptus (3.13%) that go beyond the accepted rate of 3%.

Advantages and limitation

For more accurate measurements, each sample was immersed for one time, eliminating the risk of inadvertent weight loss of the specimens owing to repeated drying and immersion. Following immersion, the samples were rinsed with distilled water removing any loose decomposition debris, for not recording any potential excess weight.

With respect to the limitations of in vitro studies, there is no absolute relationship between in vivo testing of the disintegration of the cement and the test in vitro, because of the different root canal environment and the influence of fluids and chemicals which often occur intraorally. In vivo studies as with saliva, crevicular, and body fluids on animal models recommended.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Cohen S, Burns RC. Pathways of the Pulp. 12th ed. St. Louis: Mosby 2021. p. 219-71.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Geurtsen W, Leyhausen G. Biological aspects of root canal filling materials-histocompatability, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity. Clin Oral Invest 1997;1:5-11.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Primosch RE, Ahmadi A, Setzer B, Guelmann M. A retrospective assessment of zinc oxide-eugenol pulpectomies in vital maxillary primary incisors successfully restored with composite resin crowns. Pediatr Dent 2005;27:470-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Hume WR. An analysis of the release and the diffusion through dentin of eugenol from zinc oxide-eugenol mixtures. J Dent Res 1984;63:881-4.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Koch MJ. Formaldehyde release from root-canal sealers: influence of method. Int Endod J 1999; 32: 10–6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Ho YC, Haung FM, Chang YC. Mechanisms of cytotoxicity of eugenol in human osteoblastic cells in vitro. Int Endod J 2006;39:389-93.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Nasri H. Cisplatin therapy and the problem of gender-related nephrotoxicity. J Nephropharmacol 2013;2:13-4.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Philomena G. Concerns regarding the safety and toxicity of medicinal plants − an overview. J Appl Pharmaceut Sci 2011;1:40-4.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Al Ashbal LA, Jafar ZJ, Al Dhahir ZA. Antibacterial effect of eucalyptus as root canal filling material for primary teeth in comparison with other material. J Pure Appl Microbiol 2019;13:1537-42.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Wilson AD, Mesley RJ. Chemical nature of cementing matrixes of cements formed from zinc oxide and 2-ethoxybenzoic acideugenol liquids. J Dent Res 1974;53:146.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Craig RG. Restorative Dental Materials. 14th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby 2018. p. 193-5.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
International Organization for Standardization. Specification for Dental Root Canal Sealing Materials. ISO 6876. Geneva, Switzerland; 2012.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
ANSI/ADA. Specification No. 57 Endodontic Sealing Materials. Chicago, IL; 2000.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
ANSI/ADA. Revised American National Standard/American Dental Association Specification No. 30 for Dental Zinc Oxide Eugenol and Zinc Oxide Non-eugenol Cements 7.3. Chicago, IL; 2001.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
McComb D, Smith DC. Comparison of physical properties of polycarboxylate-based and conventional root canal sealers. J Endod 1976;2:228-35  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Kazemi RR, Safavi KE, Spangberg SW. Dimensional changes of endodontic sealers. Oral Surg 1993;76:766-71.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Ørstavik D. Weight loss of endodontic sealer cements and pastes in water. Scand J Dent Res 2003;91:316-9.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Schäfer E, Zandbiglari T. A comparison of the effectiveness of chloroform and eucalyptus oil in dissolving root canal sealers. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2003;93:611-6.  Back to cited text no. 18
    


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Abstract
Introduction
Material and Methods
Results
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