|Year : 2023 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 19-21
Effect of Incorporation of Boron Nitride Nanoparticles on Impact Strength and Surface Roughness of Heat Cure Poly Methyl Methacrylate Resin: An In Vitro Study
Hussein Ali M Hussein1, Hikmat J Al-Judy2
1 Department of Prosthodontic, College of Dentistry, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq
2 Department of Prosthodontic, College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
|Date of Submission||16-Nov-2022|
|Date of Decision||15-Dec-2022|
|Date of Acceptance||17-Dec-2022|
|Date of Web Publication||20-Mar-2023|
Hussein Ali M Hussein
Department of Prosthodontic, College of Dentistry, University of Kufa, Najaf
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: The objective of this research was to explore how the addition of boron nitride (BN) nanoparticles in the concentrations of 1% and 1.5% w/w affect the impact strength and surface roughness of heat-cured poly methyl methacrylate resin (PMMA). Methods: Sixty specimens were made from heat-cured acrylic resin and then divided into control, 1%, and 1.5% w/w BN groups. The impact strength and surface roughness were investigated. One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test were used for data analysis. Results: Statistically significant difference is found among the three study groups regarding impact strength (P = 0.011) and surface roughness test (P < 0.001). The post hoc test showed significant differences for all multiple comparisons for the surface roughness test (P < 0.001). Yet, multiple comparisons for the impact strength test revealed only a significant difference between the 1.5% BN and control groups (P = 0.005). Conclusion: The addition of boron BN into PMMA improves impact strength with 1.5% concentration; while adversely increase the surface roughness.
Keywords: Boron nitride, denture base, heat cure acrylic resin, impact strength, nanoparticle, poly methyl methacrylate, surface roughness
|How to cite this article:|
Hussein HM, Al-Judy HJ. Effect of Incorporation of Boron Nitride Nanoparticles on Impact Strength and Surface Roughness of Heat Cure Poly Methyl Methacrylate Resin: An In Vitro Study. Dent Hypotheses 2023;14:19-21
|How to cite this URL:|
Hussein HM, Al-Judy HJ. Effect of Incorporation of Boron Nitride Nanoparticles on Impact Strength and Surface Roughness of Heat Cure Poly Methyl Methacrylate Resin: An In Vitro Study. Dent Hypotheses [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 May 30];14:19-21. Available from: http://www.dentalhypotheses.com/text.asp?2023/14/1/19/372087
| Introduction|| |
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a popular polymer because of its optical properties, biocompatibility, and attractive look. Acrylic resin, however, is not an ideal biomaterial because of its inadequate impact strength and fatigue resistance. Biting forces, temperature variations, exposure to saliva, water, acidic foods, and mechanical impacts are just some of the factors that can cause damage to the denture base over time., One of the most commonly used denture base materials is PMMA, but an optimal material has yet to be discovered.
The denture can break in two ways: either by impact, as when it is dropped on a hard surface, or by fatigue, as when the denture base deforms repeatedly because of occlusal forces.
Nowadays, more focus is being placed on the inclusion of various components, such as rubber, fibers, or nanosilver into PMMA in order to enhance its physical properties.,,
Boron nitride (BN) is a refractory material that exhibits notable thermal and chemical resistance. Its chemical structure is comparable to that of graphene (carbon 2D material).
BN is wildly used in dental science, for instance reinforcement of dental ceramics, filler of resin-based dental sealants, to increase properties of dental adhesives,, as a coating for dental implants, as fillers for dental resin composite.
However, the objective of this research was to explore how the addition of BN nanoparticles in the concentration of 1% and 1.5% w/w affects the impact strength and surface roughness of heat-cured PMMA.
| Materials and methods|| |
Study protocol approved by the local ethical committee of College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad (approval number (13) on March 01, 2022). Sixty specimens were prepared from heat-cured resin (Rodex, Bagcilar, Turkey). And impact strength test and a surface roughness test were carried out among the study groups: the control group (PMMA without BN) (n = 10), PMMA specimens containing 1% (n = 10), and 1.5% w/w BN (n = 10). (BN, hexagonal, 99.99%, 3–4 um) (SkySpring Nanomaterials, Inc., Houston, USA) was mixed with the monomer liquid to make the acrylic dough for the experimental groups. The BN was thoroughly dispersed using a probe sonicator apparatus (Soniprep-150, Imgen Technologies LLC, Alexandria, USA) for 3 minutes to ensure good BN dispersion and prevent agglomeration within the monomer. Imgen Technologies LLC.
Impact strength test
The acrylic samples for the impact strength test were fabricated with dimensions of 80 × 10 × 4 mm in length, width, and thickness respectively and were maintained in distilled water at 37 °C for 2 days before being tested according to ADA specification No.12. Charpy impact testing instrument (TMI, Testing Machine Inc., New York, USA) used in accordance with the guidelines laid out in ISO 179-1.
Surface roughness test
The acrylic samples of the impact strength test were fabricated with dimensions of 65 × 10 × 2.5 mm in length, width, and thickness, respectively, and were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 2 days before being tested in accordance. The profilometer apparatus (TEREN, DaLian, China) was used to examine the microstructure geometry of the test specimens.
Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test using R software (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria).
| Results|| |
The statistically significant difference was found among the three study groups regarding impact strength (P = 0.011) and surface roughness test (P < 0.001). The Post hoc test showed significant differences for all multiple comparisons for the surface roughness test (P < 0.001). Yet, multiple comparisons for the impact strength test revealed a significant difference between the 1.5% BN and control (0% BN) group (P = 0.005) and a non-significant difference between the 1% BN versus control group (P = 0.020) and 1% BN versus 1.5% BN group (P = 0.023) [Figure 1].
|Figure 1 Box and whisker plot depicted summary statistics related to impact strength and roughness test.|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
The resistance of an acrylic denture base to cracking when faced with an unexpected, intense force, such as when dropped, is a crucial quality. For this research, we utilized the Charpy impact testing equipment, which is well recognized as one of the most popular techniques for determining the relative toughness of a material in a time- and cost-efficient manner. In this study, the addition of 1% and 1.5% BN reduced the mean value of impact strength in comparison with the control group. This reduction was statistically insignificant for the 1.5% BN group.
The research of Gaffari et al., reported a similar finding, discovering a decrease in strength with the addition of silver nanoparticles. Ihab et al., assessed the effect of addition of the ZrO2 nanoparticles into PMMA and found a significant rise in impact and transverse strength at concentration of 5%, but a non-significant increase was observed at 7%. This reduction may be caused by a rise in the number of particles, each of which serves as a focal point for a localized region of high stress. As a result of their influence on the interface area at high concentrations, reinforcing materials help to minimize the loss of energy during testing. In contrast, Alqahtani reported that the addition of 5% BN increased the flexural strength, Vickers hardness and the modulus of elasticity., Kamil and Al-Judy examined the addition of silicon carbide nanoparticles to PMMA and reported a non-significant decrease in impact strength. Also, Alwan and Alameer reported a significant increase in impact and transverse strength with the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles to PMMA.
However, increased surface roughness allows the development of bacterial plaque and stains on the denture, which has a negative effect on the hygiene and esthetics of dentures. The esthetic features and biofilm adhesion are both affected by the initial surface roughness.
This study used a profilometer device, which has been recognized as a high-quality device for the assessment of surface roughness. The present study’s findings showed that the addition of BN reduced surface roughness. Our findings are in accordance with the outcomes of Mangal et al., who revealed that the addition of diamond filler resulted in a reduction in surface roughness. In contrast, Ahmed et al. showed the incorporation of silanized SiO2 nanoparticles and oxygen plasma-treated polypropylene fiber to heat cure PMMA and increase surface roughness of acrylic resin. Kamil and Al-Judy reported a significant increase in surface roughness after the addition of silicon carbide nanoparticles. Alwan and Alameer showed a significant increase in surface roughness with the incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles into PMMA. Inconsistency aside, Ihab et al. reported non-significant increases in surface roughness following the addition of ZrO2 nanoparticles.
The limitations of this study must be noted. In vitro studies could not exactly act out like oral environs. Other limitation of this study is a limited sample size.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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