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   2020| July-September  | Volume 11 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 23, 2020

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Risks in Biomedical Science − Absolute, Relative, and Other Measures
Jeehyoung Kim, Heejung Bang
July-September 2020, 11(3):69-71
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Clear Twin Block: A Step Forward in Functional Appliances
Ahmad Behroozian, Les Kalman
July-September 2020, 11(3):91-94
Introduction: Functional appliances have been used for treatment of skeletal class II patients. Clark’s twin block appliance is a commonly used functional appliance, but it has some shortcomings like compromised appearance and lack of patient cooperation. Therefore we introduced the present modification to enhance patient cooperation and increase the efficiency of the appliance. Clinical innovation: The present innovation describes a new functional appliance. The clear twin block is a modification of the traditional twin block that is made by thermoplastic clear sheets without using any wire. The unique features of this device include improved appearance and patients’ acceptance. Discussion: This appliance is relatively easy to make as wire bending is not required. Patient cooperation may also be improved as compared to traditional twin block, as there are no wire clasps to irritate the soft tissue and it is more inconspicuous. This manuscript summarizes the properties of the device and the method of fabrication.
  2,108 303 -
Culturomics: A New Approach for the Diagnosis of the Oral Microbiota
Romeo Patini
July-September 2020, 11(3):72-73
  1,937 186 -
Fabrication and Characterization of Porous Bioceramic-Magnetite Biocomposite for Maxillofacial Fractures Application
Amirsalar Khandan, Ehsan Nassireslami, Saeed Saber-Samandari, Nahid Arabi
July-September 2020, 11(3):74-85
Introduction: Advantages of using porous bio-nanocomposite scaffolds for maxillofacial fracture application and optimizing the internal surfaces of synthetic grafts using nanotechnology can accelerate the bone cell adhesion, mechanical properties and absorption rates. There are various studies that have been performed on porous scaffold, especially for the fractured and destroyed parts of the facial bones. The aim of this study was to investigate the experimental and numerical analysis of the porous scaffold, which undertakes static and dynamic loading conditions. Materials and Methods: The maxillofacial bone was modeled using the solid works software, and then it was inserted into the Abaqus software to achieve a more precise model that utilizes an isotropic linear substance. Thereafter, a proper micromechanical model reported evaluating the elastic modulus response on porosity value using various models. Additionally, an experimental analysis was conducted on a new calcium silicate (CS) bioceramic reinforced with magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) using the space holder technique coated with the gentamicin drug loaded on gelatin polymer. The response of the bio-nanocomposites shape, which corresponds to different MNPs’ weight fractions, was determined using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Results: The analysis of the scaffold implant showed that it is tightened at a torque of stiffness of 3 mm in the implant, which leads to high mechanical tension. The results showed that the elastic modulus of the nanocomposites increased from 60±5 MPa to 145±5 MPa with increasing 15 wt% MNPs to the calcium silicate nanoparticles. Conclusion: The results indicated that addition of 15 wt% MNPs to the based bioceramics increased both compression strength and decrease the porosity value.
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Comparison of Hard and Soft Tissues Around Dental Implants in Smokers and Non-smokers
Mansour Rismanchian, Pirooz Givehchian, Seyedmilad Salmani, Fatemeh Shaker
July-September 2020, 11(3):86-90
Introduction: Previous studies have shown that smoking has a significant impact on the success of dental implants. Therefore, the present study was aimed to compare the health of soft and hard tissues surrounding dental implants in smokers and non-smokers in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: The population of this cross-sectional study included 30 smokers and 30 non-smoker patients who received dental implant treatment. The health of soft tissue around the dental implant (by probing the depth index), soft tissue health (with the gingivitis index), bleeding on probe (BOP), plaque index and the health of hard tissue (bone loss) of two groups of smokers and non-smokers were studied and compared. The data were collected and entered into SPSS version 24 and were analyzed using chi-square, Mann Whitney test, and t-test. The analyses were performed at a significant level of P < 0.05. Results: The mean value of the gingival health index in the smokers and non-smokers was 2.17 ± 0.63 and 1.77 ± 0.87, respectively (P < 0.001), the mean of PD index in the smokers and non-smokers was 2.83 ± 0.73 and 7.2 ± 0.7 mm, respectively (P = 0.31). Of the 72 dental implants for the smokers and 71 for the non-smoker 40.3% and 16.9% had severe plaque around their dental implants and the plaque severity was significantly different in the two groups (P = 0.008). The bone loss rates in the smokers and non-smoker groups were 1.57 ± 0.44 and 1.39 ± 0.44 mm, respectively, which were significantly different (P = 0.015). Conclusion: The health of soft and hard tissues around the dental implant is lower in smokers than non-smokers. Considering patients’ expectations for the cost of treatment for dental implants, patients who need dental implant therapy should receive proper care, training, and encouragement to quit smoking before their dental implant treatment.
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